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Nature Science

Visualizing the hours of daylight in one year

Visualizing the hours of daylight in one year #gif #earth #space #sunlight #winter #seasons #summer

Reddit user harpalss used animation software D3 to create a beautiful visualization of the changing patterns of daylight in one year. This is how the user describes it:

Equation to calculate the hours of daylight for a given day of year and latitude can be found here. The animation was built with D3.

Both the northern and southern hemispheres experience longer and shorter days, depending on the time of year. That means less daylight right now (late November) for those in the United States and Canada and longer days for those in South America.

As Visual Capitalist accurately describes the data visualization:

Daytime is shorter in winter than in summer, for each hemisphere. This is because the Earth’s imaginary axis isn’t straight up and down, it is tilted 23.5 degrees. The Earth’s movement around this axis causes the change between day and night.

During summer in the Northern Hemisphere, daylight hours increase the farther north you go. The Arctic gets very little darkness at night. The seasonal changes in daylight hours are small near the Equator and more extreme close to the poles.

Categories
Health

How to treat a black eye

You never know when you’ll get a black eye. These tips, as illustrated in the infographic below, may come handy.

While most of the tips seem obvious — use cold compression, take an anti-inflammatory, see the doctor if still bloody — others like massaging the eye and eating pineapple and oranges to reduce swelling come as a surprise.

How to treat a black eye

Ever had a black eye? Tell us on Twitter how you treated it.

Categories
Nature Science

Researchers are developing a new vaccine to treat Lyme Disease

Scientists are developing a vaccine to help treat Lyme disease.

Humans can get Lyme disease through the transmission of the Borrelia burgdorferi bacterium from the bite of an infected tick.

Called VLA15, the vaccine works by stimulating the immune system to make antibodies that ward off 6 of the most common types of Lyme-causing bacteria in the tick’s gut.

Valneva, the biotech company in France developing the vaccine, is currently in phase II of testing. Writes the Scientific American:

The Food and Drug Administration gave VLA15 fast-track designation in July 2017. Valneva completed initial safety studies in a Phase 2 clinical trial and, according to a company press release , VLA15 “had no associated safety concerns.” The company is now working to determine the dose. Based on current estimates, Lingelbach said Valneva plans to test the vaccine in a clinical trial of at least 15,000 people, and it should be available in four or five years.

There is a second immunity being developed to prevent Lyme disease as well.

Called Lyme pre-exposure prophylaxis (Lyme PrEP), it works by sending a single antibody as a vaccine and is known to have fewer side effects than the VLA15.

The new vaccines build off the original Lyme disease vaccine called LYMErix developed twenty years ago. But production stopped due to fears of the side effects.

Unlike other viruses, Lyme disease is hard to treat since it pervades the body’s tissue in addition to the blood. Joint pain, heart palpitations, muscle weakness, and confusion are some of the symptoms of Lyme disease.

In a worst-case scenario, the bacteria can even dominate the entire central nervous system, producing disastrous effects on the human body.

Categories
Architecture & Design Travel

Photographs of the aerotropolis, post-modern cities built around airports

Should the airport be the hub of the city?

According to photographer Giulio Di Sturco, the post-modern city is one of the aerotropolis, where the city, business, entertainment, and nature activities are all centered around the airport.

Di Sturco’s ongoing project Aerotropolis, The Way We Will Live Next explores the emergence of globalized architecture and generic spaces happening in Singapore, Bangkok, and Songdo, South Korea.

“These cities capture the breadth of themes running through civilization, from the re-appropriation of the natural landscape to our unquestioning faith in technology, set in the backdrop of architecture refined in elegance and logic,” writes Di Sturco.

“It is the post-modern city. A vision, or perhaps a mirage, it is a window of opportunities to solve the dilemma of modernity: reconciling economic development and sustainable growth.”

Gardens by the Bay, a nature park spanning 101 hectares of reclaimed land in central Singapore. ‘Its sci-fi interiors are nature reimagined, nurtured to fill the vast hangars of super-modernity’ From Aerotropolis, The Way We Will Live Next © Giulio Di Sturco
Bangkok International Suvarnabhumi Airport (BKK) is the gateway for Southeast Asia. It has the world’s tallest free-standing control tower (434 feet), and the world’s fourth largest single-building airport terminal (6,060,000 square feet). From Aerotropolis, The Way We Will Live Next © Giulio Di Sturco
New Songdo International Business District is a compelling aerotropolis strategically located just over 7 miles from Incheon International Airport. From Aerotropolis, The Way We Will Live Next © Giulio Di Sturco